Purkayastha, Bandana. 2012. “Intersectionality in a Transnational World.” Gender and Society 26 (1): 55-66.
Expanding PHC’s intersectionality into how we transnationally think about “race” in social spaces, including virtual ones, as well as religious-based marginalization as it plays into power and privilege. Transnational world creates ease of consuming physical and cultural products – remittances, “cyber-migrants” working for North but living in South, and web-based community participants (of community, others with multiple, fragmented, and hybrid identities)… political impacts of transnational/cyber communities, surveillance, multiple sources of domination. Notes weakness in PHC’s non-articulation of racial hierarchies different from Euro-American organizations – that is to say, transnational examples complicate PHC’s ideation of race within intersectional models. Nation-state contexts create highly dependent and situated experiences of social locations. Transnational relations and migrations are not always South-North, which creates a different type of hierarchy, based upon different points of social location. People who experience disadvantage may attempt to balance or gain privilege through seeking it out in another state or in virtual spaces. Women of color, through transnational lives, can work on the opportunity to be a part of the racial majority and minority simultaneously (Purkayastha 2010)***, religio-caste hierarchies may vary experience and structure (political, economic) when examined in transnational/intra-national contexts.
Purkayastha, Bandana. 2005. Negotiating ethnicity: Second-generation South
Asian Americans traverse a transnational world. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers