Feiereisen, Stéphanie, Amanda J. Broderick, and Susan P. Douglas. 2009. “The Effect and Moderation of Gender Identity Congruity: Utilizing ‘Real Women’ Advertising Images.” Psychology & Marketing 26(9): 813-843.
Increased use of ‘real women’ in sports and clothing advertising, in response to the negative self-definition many women face post-advertising, decreasing advertising effectiveness (Bower and Landreth 2001). Congruity between gender self-concept and that represented in advertisement. (Disagree with their conceptualization of gender as masculine or feminine identity or schematic exhibition of traits). Use of identity within cultural groups, and using these groups as frame of cultural reference for femininity, values, and traits. Physical appearance and vanity as an important factor in self concept (Wang and Waller 2006) – women’s use of attractiveness is more impacting that it is for men (Burton, Netemeyer, and Lichtenstein 1995); however, growth in the urban, metrosexual male – who still do not want to be regarded as effeminate.
Bower, A.B. and S. Landreth. 2001. “Is Beauty Best? Highs versus Normally Attractive Models in Advertising.” Journal of Advertising 30:1-12.
Burton, S., R.G. Netemeyer, and D.R. Lichtenstein. 1995. “Gender Differences for Appearance-Related Attitudes and Behaviors: Implications for Consumer Welfare.” Journal of Public Policy and Marketing 14:60-75.
Wang, P.Z. and D.S. Waller. 2006. “Measuring Consumer Vanity: A Cross-Cultural Validation.” Psychology and Marketing 23:665-687.