Zhang, Lin, Pataradech “Tony” Srisupandit, and Debra Cartwright. 2009. “A Comparison of Gender Role Portrayals in Magazine Advertising: The United States, China and Thailand.” Management Research News 32(7): 683-700.
Advertising as a primary communication link between companies and consumers, providing images and language that hopes to keep pace with cultural, economic, and social changes – (may provide customers with information as how to do this too? kx^). Advertising as a “distorted mirror” (Pollay 1986), promoting lifestyles, attitudes that help promote products. Gender stereotyping as common advertising strategies. “Even though some ideas and attitudes are intentionally concealed or under-represented while others are emphasized and embellished, changes in society and culture will eventually be reflected in advertising (Lindner 2004, here 684). Frame and content analyses as widely-used research methods in gender role portrayal research. Frame analysis of Goffman (1974), as exploring visual information to avoid word interpretation; yet, advertising includes important images within the text used to describe products.
Goffman, E. 1974. Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience. New York: Harper and Row.
Lindner, K. 2004. “Images of Women in General Interest and Fashion Magazine Advertisements from 1955 to 2002.” Sex Roles 51: 409-421.
Pollay, R.W. 1986. “The Distorted Mirror: Reflections on the Unintended Consequences of Advertising.” Journal of Marketing: 50: 18-36.