Kotarba, Joseph and Matt Held. 2006. “Professional Female Football Players: Tackling Like a Girl?” In Body/Embodiment: Symbolic Interaction and the Sociology of the Body, eds. Dennis Waskul and Phillip Vannini. Burlington, VT: Ashgate. Pgs. 153-164.
External situations help to frame women’s experience of body: “ambiguous bodily transcendence, inhibited intentionality, and discontinuous unity with its surroundings” (155) – limitations on body and its ability to perform or exist fully within its given environment – as objects of action, not creators of action (see Young 2000). Bourdieu (2001) notes bodies as subject to social forces, an unfinished self – use of these forces to construct bodies into social beings. Bordo (1993) – desire for masculine body symbolizes public power, resistance against maternity, femininity. Empowerment through experiencing body as subject as well as object (Merleau-Ponty 1962).
Bordo, Susan. 1993. Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Bourdieu, Pierre. 2001. Male Domination. New York: Polity Press.
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. 1962. The Phenomenology of Perception. (trans. Colin Smith.) New York: Humanities Press.
Young, Iris Marion. 2000. Throwing Like a Girl and other Essays in Feminist Philosophy and Social Theory. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.