Fabiani, Jean-Louis. 2011. “Festivals, Local and Global: Critical Interventions and the Cultural Public Sphere. In Festivals and the Cultural Public Sphere, edited by Liana Georgi, Monica Sassatelli, and Gerard Delanty. New York: Routledge. Pp. 92-107.
Film and art festivals not merely just a consumptive gathering, but a way to build discourse (through discussion prior/post-consumption), and to offer space for interchange of identity. Festivals as a site of nation-building – a means to differentiate selections of culture, a way to specialize (kx^ but yet, also integrate) the types and styles of a national culture. Festivals as evidence of the secularization of culture – spectators (participants) as pilgrims that desire (kx^ a type of enlightenment, revelation, knowledge?) Despite breakdown of barriers, spectators are never fully “one” with each other or the festival– they are divided by social locations, interests, and are removed from many of the aspects of production.