Quadara, Antonio. 2014. “The Everydayness of Rape: How Understanding Sexual Assault Perpetration Can Inform Prevention Efforts.” In Preventing Sexual Violence: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Overcoming a Rape Culture, edited by Nicola Henry and Anastasia Powell. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Pp. 41-63.
The majority of reported sexual assaults do not progress to criminal trial. Looking solely to the beliefs, behaviors, and attitudes of convicted perpetrators can obscure those of undetected or undocumented perpetrators of sexual assault. Three core factors that give rise to violence against women: rigid gender roles, attitudes that support male entitlement and dominance, women’s inequality compared to men (VicHealth 2007). Media representations of sexual assault perpetrators focus in on predatory Others with sexual pathologies (Ducat et al 2009) or normal men who are subject to misunderstandings or even deliberate fabrication of accusations by women (Waterhouse-Watson 2011).
Hypergender ideology – a “block” of interrelated attitudes that reinforce rigid gender roles, heterosexuality, adversarial gender relations, and acceptance of rape myths (Loh et al 2005); “hostile masculinity” and “hypermasculinity” are strongest correlates to sexual aggression (Murnen et al 2002).
Sexual assault prevention and treatment is hinged upon the notion that we actually are able to try and convict perpetrators – what use are tertiary prevention (recidivist-specific) options if we do not have a system that gets people to the justice system to access these tools?
Assault from men is not just a psycho-social interaction that hinges on individuals, but a larger system of hierarchy between men and women, as well as the interactions and policing of masculinity by men for other men.
Ducat, L., S. Thomas, and W. Blood. 2009. “Sensationalising Sex Offenders and Sexual Recidivism: Impact of the Serious Sex Offender Monitoring Act 2005 on Media Reportage.” Australian Psychologist 44(3):156-165.
Loh, C., C. Gidycz, T. Lobo, and R. Luthra. 2005. “A Prospective Analysis of Sexual Assault Perpetration: Risk Factors Related to Perpetrator Characteristics.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 20(10):1325-1348.
Murnen, S.K., C. Wright, and G. Kaluzny. 2002. “If ‘Boys Will Be Boys,’ Then Girls Will Be Victims? A Meta-analytic Review of the Research that Relates Masculine Ideology to Sexual Aggerssion.” Sex Roles 46(11/12): 359-375.
VicHealth. 2007. Preventing Violence before It Occurs: A Framework and Background Paper to Guide the Primary Prevention of Violence Against Women in Victoria. Melbourne, VIC: Victorian Health Promotion Foundation.
Waterhouse-Watson, D. 2011. “(Un)reasonable Doubt: A ‘Narrative Immunity’ for Footballers Against Sexual Assault Allegations.” M/C Journal: A Journal of Media and Culture 14(1): retrieved at http://www.journal.media-culture.org.au/index.php/mcjournal/article/viewArticle/337.